Food and Chemical Toxicology 2012 [epub] Gilles-Eric Séralini, Emilie Clair, Robin Mesnage, Steeve Gress, Nicolas Defarge, Manuela Malatesta, Didier Hennequin, Joël Spiroux de Vendômois KEY POINTS FROM THIS ARTICLE: 1) This study represents the first detailed documentation of long-term deleterious effects arising from the consumption of a GM Roundup-tolerant maize and of Roundup, the most used herbicide worldwide. 2) Monsanto produced the Roundup-tolerant GMO corn and the Roundup used in this study. The chemical name for Roundup is glyphosate. 3) These authors evaluated the health effects on rats with the consumption of: A) Roundup-tolerant genetically modified corn grown with applied Roundup [this group is being exposed to BOTH GMO corn and to Roundup] B) Roundup-tolerant genetically modified corn grown without applied Roundup [this group is being exposed to GMO corn but NOT to Roundup] C) Water with Roundup in it at 0.1 ppb (parts per billion) at very low environmentally relevant doses starting below the range of levels permitted by regulatory authorities in drinking water and in GM feed [this group is being exposed ONLY to Roundup] 4) All 3 groups of animals died 2 – 3 times more than controls [at the same time marker], and died more rapidly, especially the females. 5) Females in all 3 groups developed large mammary tumors almost always more often than and before controls. 6) The pituitary was the second most disabled organ in all 3 female groups. 7) The sex hormonal balance was modified by GMO and Roundup treatments in all 3 female groups. 8) In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5 – 5.5 times higher. 9) Males presented 4 times more large palpable tumors than controls which occurred up to 600 days earlier. 10) Biochemistry data confirmed very significant kidney chronic deficiencies; for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the altered parameters were kidney related. 11) These results can be explained by the endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup, and by the overexpression of the transgene in the GMO and its metabolic consequences. [Important] 12) GM soy and corn that are rendered tolerant to the herbicide Roundup contain more herbicide residues. [Very Important] 13) Chronic diet ingestion of Roundup pesticide residues in GM feed may cause early alterations in kidney and liver functions. 14) Roundup concentrations about 103 times below the maximal residual levels induces endocrine disturbances in human cells. 15) Today, Roundup residues are found in tap water, food and animal feed. 16) Up to 14 months, no animals in the control groups showed any signs of tumors whilst 10 – 30% of treated females per group developed tumors. 17) By the 24th month, 50 – 80% of female animals had developed tumors in all treated groups, with up to 3 tumors per animal, whereas only 30% of controls were affected. 18) The second most affected organ in females was the pituitary gland, in general around 2 times more than in controls for most treatments. 19) The big palpable tumors in males (in kidney, and mostly skin) were by the end of the experimental period on average twice as frequent as in controls. 20) The most affected organs in males were the liver, together with the hepatodigestive tract and kidneys. Hepatic congestions, macroscopic and microscopic necrotic foci were 2.5 – 5.5 times more frequent in all treatments than in control groups. 21) Degenerating kidneys with marked and severe chronic progressive nephropathies were about twice as high in the treated groups. 22) In summary, for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the discriminant variables versus controls were kidney related. 23) The first large detectable tumors occurred at 4 and 7 months into the study in males and females respectively, underlining the inadequacy of the standard 90 day feeding trials for evaluating GM crop and food toxicity. [Important] 24) Currently, no regulatory authority requests mandatory chronic animal feeding studies to be performed for edible GMOs and formulated pesticides. 25) We observed a strikingly marked induction of mammary tumors by Roundup alone, a major formulated pesticide, even at the very lowest dose administered. 26) Roundup disrupts estrogen synthesis and interferes with estrogen and androgen receptors. Roundup appears to be a sex endocrine disruptor. 27) Roundup enhances pituitary dysfunction, especially in females. 28) It appears that consumption of Roundup-tolerant corn provokes early aging of kidney physiology through oxidative stress. 29) Very low dilutions of Roundup are toxic to liver mitochondrial function, and cause cell membrane degradation. 30) In conclusion, it was previously known that glyphosate [Roundup] consumption in water above authorized limits may provoke hepatic and kidney failures. 31) The results of the study presented here clearly demonstrate that lower levels of complete agricultural glyphosate [Roundup] herbicide formulations, at concentrations well below officially set safety limits, induce severe hormonedependent mammary, hepatic and kidney disturbances. 32) Roundup and Roundup-tolerant GMO corn cause significant biochemical disturbances and physiological failures. COMMENTS FROM DAN MURPHY This study indicates that consumption of GMO Roundup-tolerant corn, whether it is exposed to Roundup or not, or any exposure to Roundup, alters biological physiology. Such exposures damage the pituitary gland, breast, liver, kidney, and hormonal systems; such exposures appear to be carcinogenic.