Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize

Food and Chemical Toxicology 2012 [epub] Gilles-Eric Séralini, Emilie Clair, Robin Mesnage, Steeve Gress, Nicolas Defarge,Manuela Malatesta, Didier Hennequin, Joël Spiroux de VendômoisKEY POINTS FROM THIS ARTICLE: 1) This study represents the first detailed documentation of long-termdeleterious effects arising from the consumption of a GM Roundup-tolerant maizeand of Roundup, the most used herbicide worldwide. 2) Monsanto produced the Roundup-tolerant GMO corn and the Roundup used inthis study. The chemical name for Roundup is glyphosate. 3) These authors evaluated the health effects on rats with the consumption of: A) Roundup-tolerant genetically modified corn grown with applied Roundup[this group is being exposed to BOTH GMO corn and to Roundup] B) Roundup-tolerant genetically modified corn grown without applied Roundup[this group is being exposed to GMO corn but NOT to Roundup] C) Water with Roundup in it at 0.1 ppb (parts per billion) at very lowenvironmentally relevant doses starting below the range of levels permittedby regulatory authorities in drinking water and in GM feed[this group is being exposed ONLY to Roundup] 4) All 3 groups of animals died 2 – 3 times more than controls [at the same timemarker], and died more rapidly, especially the females. 5) Females in all 3 groups developed large mammary tumors almost alwaysmore often than and before controls. 6) The pituitary was the second most disabled organ in all 3 female groups. 7) The sex hormonal balance was modified by GMO and Roundup treatments inall 3 female groups. 8) In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5 – 5.5 times higher. 9) Males presented 4 times more large palpable tumors than controls whichoccurred up to 600 days earlier. 10) Biochemistry data confirmed very significant kidney chronic deficiencies; forall treatments and both sexes, 76% of the altered parameters were kidney related. 11) These results can be explained by the endocrine-disrupting effects ofRoundup, and by the overexpression of the transgene in the GMO and its metabolicconsequences. [Important] 12) GM soy and corn that are rendered tolerant to the herbicide Roundup containmore herbicide residues. [Very Important] 13) Chronic diet ingestion of Roundup pesticide residues in GM feed may causeearly alterations in kidney and liver functions. 14) Roundup concentrations about 103 times below the maximal residual levelsinduces endocrine disturbances in human cells. 15) Today, Roundup residues are found in tap water, food and animal feed. 16) Up to 14 months, no animals in the control groups showed any signs oftumors whilst 10 – 30% of treated females per group developed tumors. 17) By the 24th month, 50 – 80% of female animals had developed tumors in alltreated groups, with up to 3 tumors per animal, whereas only 30% of controls wereaffected. 18) The second most affected organ in females was the pituitary gland, ingeneral around 2 times more than in controls for most treatments. 19) The big palpable tumors in males (in kidney, and mostly skin) were by theend of the experimental period on average twice as frequent as in controls. 20) The most affected organs in males were the liver, together with thehepatodigestive tract and kidneys. Hepatic congestions, macroscopic andmicroscopic necrotic foci were 2.5 – 5.5 times more frequent in all treatments than incontrol groups. 21) Degenerating kidneys with marked and severe chronic progressivenephropathies were about twice as high in the treated groups. 22) In summary, for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the discriminantvariables versus controls were kidney related. 23) The first large detectable tumors occurred at 4 and 7 months into the studyin males and females respectively, underlining the inadequacy of the standard 90day feeding trials for evaluating GM crop and food toxicity. [Important] 24) Currently, no regulatory authority requests mandatory chronic animalfeeding studies to be performed for edible GMOs and formulated pesticides. 25) We observed a strikingly marked induction of mammary tumors by Roundupalone, a major formulated pesticide, even at the very lowest dose administered. 26) Roundup disrupts estrogen synthesis and interferes with estrogen andandrogen receptors. Roundup appears to be a sex endocrine disruptor. 27) Roundup enhances pituitary dysfunction, especially in females. 28) It appears that consumption of Roundup-tolerant corn provokes early aging ofkidney physiology through oxidative stress. 29) Very low dilutions of Roundup are toxic to liver mitochondrial function, andcause cell membrane degradation. 30) In conclusion, it was previously known that glyphosate [Roundup]consumption in water above authorized limits may provoke hepatic and kidneyfailures. 31) The results of the study presented here clearly demonstrate that lower levelsof complete agricultural glyphosate [Roundup] herbicide formulations, atconcentrations well below officially set safety limits, induce severe hormone-dependentmammary, hepatic and kidney disturbances. 32) Roundup and Roundup-tolerant GMO corn cause significant biochemicaldisturbances and physiological failures. COMMENTS FROM DAN MURPHY This study indicates that consumption of GMO Roundup-tolerant corn, whether it isexposed to Roundup or not, or any exposure to Roundup, alters biologicalphysiology. Such exposures damage the pituitary gland, breast, liver, kidney, andhormonal systems; such exposures appear to be carcinogenic.